(A note to the group: I wanted to let everyone know that I emailed Dr. Walker about this part of the project. I've been saving all of my research on a word document and wasn't able to cross it over to the wiki page. So I saved the word documents as pictures and posted them here. I emailed Dr. Walker and he said not to worry about the situation of the word doc, that it would be fine, and not to worry about the paper trail. -Gregg)

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and fabrics did not survive whereas metal work such as weapons, drinking vessels, and jewelry
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The most notable of spiral shapes are mostly documented on the sides of Celtic
megaliths such as the monument Newgrange in Ireland. Teasha's page on stone
monuments is a great resource on how many types, styles, and uses of mega liths
there are in the ancient Celtic realm.

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For more information on the topic of Celtic religion check out Sara's page. She does
a great job describing different Celtic religions, their possible origions, and the different
symbols and gods associated with them. There are also many examples of art with
anthropomorphic and zoomorphic styles associated with the many religions.

Women also played an important role in some Celtic art. As stated above, much of
art in religion revolved around women: the worship of goddesses as well as the worship
of a Mother Earth. Many excavations of burials have revealed women adorned in jewelry
and gold. For more information on the roles of women in Celtic society, visit Christine'spage.


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MODULES:

Keywords
Art
Sculpture, painting, architecture, molds, ceramics, bronze, silver, tapestry, Celt, Gaul, Nordic, Iron Age, bluestones, copper, manuscript, stone work, Etruscans

The topic I’m interested in the art before the Roman era (of course)… I’d like to be able to relate European art to most of the other topics being discussed in our report. I’d like to discuss lithic art and its presumed meanings in religion as well as bronze and copper. Also, there is so much more to Pre-Roman Western Europe than just the Celts and I’d like to explore the differences in them through their art.

Module 8

"Kerma: The Rise of an African Civilization”

"The floodplains along the Nile constitute an important but as yet little utilized series of laboratories for the comparative study of the origins and interaction of ancient civilizations."



Module 9
European Prehistory: Neolithic to the Iron Age
Author(s): Marija Gimbutas
Source: Biennial Review of Anthropology, Vol. 3, (1963), pp. 69-106
Published by: Stanford University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2949171


Module 10
Art of Western Europe before the Romans


Origins of Celtic Art
Before the Romans, the development of Celtic art began in Central Europe by its many Celtic tribes. In the beginning it was heavily influenced by the Greeks, Etruscans, and Scythians because of established trading. After the adoption and influence of other culture’s art, Celtic art began to distinguish itself in many ways. Greek stylized human faces began taking on individual faces, expressions, hairstyles, and dress while animals were incorporated more and more into art. Unfortunately, because of poor preservation, expressional leather and fabrics did not survive whereas metal work such as weapons, drinking vessels, and jewelry did. Gold, silver, and bronze are used often on these indicating the formation of stature and inequality in Celtic tribes. Celtic art is clustered with birds, horses, deer, humans, and plants most likely following the worship of nature in association to the many forms of religions in this part of the ancient world. Geometric shapes like spirals, lozenges, and knots are also common on metal work as well as Neolithic mega-stone monuments. Another motif in Celtic art is the appearance of fictional beasts and plants alongside with abstract patterns.


Module 11
Before the Romans, the development of Celtic art began in Central Europe by its many Celtic tribes. In the beginning it was heavily influenced by the Greeks, Etruscans, and Scythians because of established trading. After the adoption and influence of other culture’s art, Celtic art began to distinguish itself in many ways. Greek stylized human faces began taking on individual faces, expressions, hairstyles, and dress while animals were incorporated more and more into art. Unfortunately, because of poor preservation, expressional leather and fabrics did not survive whereas metal work such as weapons, drinking vessels, and jewelry did. Gold, silver, and bronze are used often on these indicating the formation of stature and inequality in Celtic tribes.
Celtic art is extremely symbolic being clustered with birds, horses, deer, humans, and plants most likely following the worship of nature in association to the many forms of religions in this part of the ancient world. “The religious beliefs of the Celtic world had their roots firmly within the concepts of animism and the sanctity of the natural world in all its manifestations. Divinities were associated not only with animals but with natural phenomena such as the sun, thunder, water, and trees.”(Green 131) Geometric shapes like spirals, lozenges, and knots are also common on metal work as well as Neolithic mega-stone monuments. Another motif in Celtic art is the appearance of fictional beasts and plants alongside with abstract patterns.
Green, Miranda. 1989, Symbol and Image in Celtic Religious Art. Routledge, New York.


Module 12

This is the 3D map of Stonehenge, I'm going to add more in the morning!

Module 13
Paul Jacobsthal. The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, vol 67, No. 390 (Sep., 1935), pp.113-127. The Burlington Magazine Publications
In some archaeological parlances, Celtic art is often referred to as “La Tene art” named after the site of La Tene in Switzerland where in 1857 many artifacts where discovered by Hansli Kopp. In his article, Jacobsthal touches on La Tene art origins and comments on anthropological and zoological implications of its style. Jacobsthal states that Celtic art was extremely influenced from its surrounding cultures, that being the Greeks and the Orient. Humans are usually standing still have contain strong brow ridges, swollen cheeks, and a long drawn chin whereas animalistic forms never depict the natural animal as itself, but view animals as “daemonic beasts of fancy” giving them a magical and spiritual quality.

Module 14

Green, Miranda. 1989, Symbol and Image in Celtic Religious Art. Routledge, New York. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=km66Nu4d34C& oi=fnd&pg=PR8&dq=Green,+Miranda.+1989,+Symbol+and+Image+in+Celtic+Religious+Art.+Routledge,+New+York.&ots=NVHzYJhglm&sig=jNErtH8 rHYozMI-WdGQ3KJyRMD4#v=onepage&q=Green%2C%20Miranda.%201989%2C%20Symbol%20and%20Image%20in%20Celtic%20Religious%20Art.%20Routledge%2C%20New%20York.&f=false. (accessed on November 28, 2009).


Celtic art is full of representations despite its classical background and models. Nature and the elements seem to be a key element in art work of this time. Celtic art is also extremely symbolic being clustered with birds, horses, deer, humans, and plants most likely following the worship of nature in association to the many forms of religions in this part of the ancient world. The Celts worshipped the stars, sun, moon, and the earth which show themselves many a time in engravings, sculptures, and metal workings. “The religious beliefs of the Celtic world had their roots firmly within the concepts of animism and the sanctity of the natural world in all its manifestations. Divinities were associated not only with animals but with natural phenomena such as the sun, thunder, water, and trees.”(Green 1989, 131) Humans are usually standing still have contain strong brow ridges, swollen cheeks, and a long drawn chin whereas animalistic forms never depict the natural animal as itself, but view animals as “daemonic beasts of fancy” giving them a magical and spiritual quality. Geometric shapes like spirals, lozenges, and knots are also common on metal work as well as Neolithic mega-stone monuments. Another motif in Celtic art is the appearance of fictional beasts and plants along side with abstract patterns. (Green 1989)